Timing and Frequency of Antenatal Care Utilization in Slums: Assessing Determinants over time

  • Kanyiva Muindi African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi
  • Blessing Mberu African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi
  • Patricia Elung’ata McGill University
  • Maharouf Oyolola Nairobi


Timely and adequate antenatal care (ANC) attendance is important in maternal health. This paper examined the factors associated with ANC utilization in Nairobi slums in 2000 and 2012. Data come from two cross sectional surveys in the slums in Nairobi city. We fitted multinomial and logistic regression models to assess respectively, factors associated with timing of the first ANC visit and the frequency of ANC visits. In both years, parity, mother’s ethnic group and educational attainment were significantly associated with timing of first ANC visit. Frequency of visits was significantly associated with mother’s educational attainment, parity, pregnancy wantedness and place of residence. We conclude that for optimal ANC utilization, there is need to improve women’s educational outcomes and address cultural barriers to utilization


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Author Biography

Kanyiva Muindi, African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi
Urbanization and Wellbeing Program15