Préférences de fécondité et perception de la planification familiale des migrants temporaires à Dakar

Yacine Boujija, Laetitia Douillot, Valérie Delaunay, Simona Bignami, John Sandberg

Abstract


Une vaste littérature s’est attardée sur la fécondité des migrants internationaux en les comparant aux non-migrants au lieu de destination. Peu de travaux ont considéré les populations d’origine comme référence et encore moins l’ont fait pour des migrants internes. Une telle approche est pourtant pertinente dans un contexte africain où les clivages démographiques entre régions rurales et urbaines sont encore importants et où les migrations sont souvent circulaires. En nous attardant sur la zone rurale de Niakhar, nous utilisons les données d’une enquête sur les réseaux sociaux, pratiques et croyances individuelles afin d’observer si les normes et préférences de fécondité des migrants temporaires à Dakar diffèrent de celles de la population d’origine. Les résultats indiquent des différences légères pour la connaissance et l’acceptabilité de la planification familiale. Toutefois, les migrants ont un nombre idéal d’enfants plus faible en moyenne que les non-migrants. Nos modèles multivariés suggèrent que ces différences s’expliquent principalement par les hypothèses de sélection et d’adaptation.

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A large literature has focused on the fertility of international migrants by comparing them to non-migrants at the destination. Few studies have considered the original populations as a reference and even less so for internal migrants. However, such an approach is relevant, especially in African contexts where demographic differences between rural and urban areas remain important and where migration is often circular. Focusing on the rural area of Niakhar, we use data from a survey on social networks, individual practices and beliefs to assess whether the fertility norms and preferences of temporary migrants to Dakar differ from those of the population at origin. The results indicate slight differences in the knowledge and acceptability of family planning. However, migrants have an ideal average number of children lower than non-migrants. Our multivariate models suggest that these differences are mainly explained by the selection and adaptation hypotheses.


Keywords


Migrants internes; fécondité; Sénégal; nombre idéal d’enfants; diffusion

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.11564/34-1-1165

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